n air temperature is controlled during refrigeration. Le retour temp�rature de l'air est contr�l�e au cours de la r�frig�ration.

risk factors les facteurs de risque
Required information on possible risks for the transport, handling and storage processes, available from TIS (Transport Information Service www.tis-gdv.de ). L'information requise sur les risques �ventuels pour le transport, la manipulation et les processus de stockage, disponible sur le TIS (Transports Service d'information www.tis-gdv.de).

risk of larceny/theft risque de vol / vol
Risk of the illegal removal or appropriation of goods or objects. Risque d'enlèvement ill�gal ou l'appropriation de biens ou d'objets. A distinction is made between simple larceny (ie without the use of force) and compound larceny (ie with forced entry by breaking and entering or by copued keys. Une distinction est faite entre le vol simple (c'est-à-dire sans l'utilisation de la force) et de compos�s vol (c'est-à-dire avec force par introduction par effraction ou par copued cl�s.

roll angle angle de roulis
Angle at which a ship moves around its longitudinal axis. Angle à un navire qui se d�place autour de son axe longitudinal.

roll oscillation rouleau oscillation
Oscillation due to rolling. Oscillation dus au roulement. This is the name given to the movement of a ship around its longitudinal axis. C'est le nom donn� au mouvement d'un navire autour de son axe longitudinal.

roof bows toit arcs
Steel or aluminum frame construction in conjunction with removable wooden/aluminum gates that hold the tarpaulin of a truck, trailer, semi-trailer or a swap body. En acier ou en aluminium dans la construction de structures en liaison avec amovible en bois / aluminium portes qui retiennent la b�che d'un camion, remorque, semi-remorque ou une caisse mobile. This type of open-sided construction is sometimes known as a tarpaulin truck. Ce type d'ouverture unilat�rale de construction est parfois connu sous le nom de b�che de camion.

ro/ro ship Ro / Ro navire
Roll-on/roll-off: Cargo ship on which the mobile cargo can be rolled directly on and off board (by lorry, trailer, etc.) by means of bow, stern and side doors (ramps). Rouliers: navire de charge sur les mobiles qui les marchandises peuvent être lamin�s directement sur et hors bord (par camion, remorque, etc) par le biais de la proue, arrière et lat�rales (rampes). In contrast to this, cargo loaded and discharged on other cargo ships by means of their own or external loading tackle (vertical handling). En revanche, fret charg� et d�charg� sur d'autres navires de charge par le biais de leurs propres ou externes de chargement s'attaquer (manutention verticale).

round turn tour ronde
Hawsers, ropes or belts wound around an item. Hawsers, des cordes ou des courroies plaie autour d'un point. On the one hand as a basis for forming a knot, on the other hand as a method of lashing. D'une part comme une base pour former un noeud, d'autre part, un mode de saisine. Unfortunately, round turn lashing is a widespread "securing method". Malheureusement, tour ronde d'arrimage est un vaste "garantir m�thode". It is absolutely unsuitable for securing a cargo as the cargo can move "freely" in the loop and no securing effect is thus achieved. Il est tout à fait impropres à garantir une cargaison que la cargaison peut se d�placer "librement" dans la boucle et pas de garantir effet est donc atteint.

S S safe to transport s�curit� pour le transport
Cargo is secured appropriately if it is loaded, stowed and secured in such a way that it cannot be damaged by events that can be reasonably expected during carriage. Cargo est garantie appropri�e si elle est charg�e, charg�s et arrim�s de telle sorte qu'ils ne puissent être endommag�s par les �v�nements que l'on peut raisonnablement pr�voir pendant le transport.

salmonellosis salmonellose
Infectious, febrile intestinal and general diseases caused by salmonellae. Infectieuses, f�brile et intestinale g�n�ral maladies caus�es par les salmonelles.

San-Jos� scale San-Jos� �chelle
Quarantine pest that attacks stone fruit, pomaceous fruit and berries, as well as decorative woods und structural lumber. Quarantaine que les attaques fruit à noyau, pomaceous fruits et des baies, ainsi que de d�coration bois et bois de charpente.

saturation content saturation contenu
Depending on its temperature, air can absorb different quantities of water vapor until it is saturated (100% relative humidity). En fonction de sa temp�rature, l'air peut absorber diff�rentes quantit�s de vapeur d'eau jusqu'à ce qu'il soit satur� (100% d'humidit� relative).

sealed package emballage scell�
Packaging impervious to water vapor used to store goods at risk of corrosion. Emballage imperm�able à la vapeur d'eau utilis�e pour stocker les marchandises à risque de corrosion. Desiccants are used in sealed packages to maintain an artificial atmosphere with a relative humidity of < 40%. Desiccants sont utilis�s dans des emballages ferm�s de maintenir une atmosphère artificielle avec une humidit� relative de <40%. No corrosion is possible below this threshold. Pas de corrosion est possible en dessous de ce seuil.

secondary infection infection secondaire
Contamination caused as a result of microorganisms (durable spores) from previous contaminated loads that are able to attack a subsequent cargo. La contamination caus�s par des micro-organismes (spores durables) de pr�c�dents contamin�s charges qui sont en mesure d'attaquer une nouvelle cargaison.

self-heating auto-�chauffement
Temperature increase within an organic solid without external heat input. Augmentation de la temp�rature dans un solide organique sans apport de chaleur externe.

semifinished product (semi) semi-produits (semi-)
Steel products that have already been shaped by hot-rolling or continuous casting processes and which are then subjected to further shaping to produce finished products. These include:
Rough-rolled blocks (blooms with round or square cross-sections), slabs, billets, boards and ingots.

semitrailer (trailer)
Trailer with a rear axle assembly that is pulled by a towing tractor or truck tractor. There are two different kinds of trailer: Semitrailers that are also permitted in road traffic, and roll trailers (cargo trailers) that are pulled by towing tractors and are used only in ro-ro operations. These towing tractors are permitted only in terminal operations, and not allowed to be used on public roads.

Chill haze

shipping mark
Part of the marking on packages. The shipping mark comprises:
- Identification mark: eg initial letters of recipient or shipper
- Identification number: eg the recipient's order number
- Total number of items in the complete consignment
- Sequential number of the package in the consignment
- Final destination and port of destination.

shock and/or tilt indicators
These indicators are attached to sensitive loads for monitoring purposes. They indicate whether specified threshold values have been exceeded either in terms of acceleration or tilt.

shrinkage in mass
Loss of volume, for instance with leather goods as a result of drying out.

Loss in volume, reduction (weight loss) of goods during transport or storage.

shrink wrapping
Shrink wrapping involves enclosing the package contents in shrink film (flat or tubular film), heat sealing any unsealed portions and separating the package from the film web or covering the package contents with a shrink cover. Depending upon the shape and weight of the package contents, the shrink material used should be PE or plasticized PVC film of a thickness of 0.01 to 0.2 mm, with PE films being particularly suitable for heavy items. The film is heated from the outside in a shrink-wrap oven or with hand-held heat gun, thus releasing the captive tension in the film. Shrink films are produced in either monoaxial (in a single direction) or biaxial (in two directions) orientation. As the film cools down, it shrinks around the package contents, applying a very low pressure per unit area.

Physical changes in materials caused by high temperatures; applied in particular to metals, ceramics and minerals/rock.

sirex wasp (Urocerus gigas L.)
Giant wood wasp. When using packaging made of wood for marine transport to Australia and New Zealand, the appropriate treatment and certification of the wood must be observed.

SKD ( s emi k nocked- d own cars): For export to countries which apply high levels of customs duty to luxury goods, automobiles are shipped in completely knocked down (CKD) or semi/part knocked down (SKD, PKD) form. In this case, the package sizes for the individual components are adapted precisely to the container in which they are transported, which means that the cargo is secured by tight fit.

Skids are sled-like bases used to facilitate ground conveyance of/securing of, for example, heavy machinery and machine parts

Cuboid half-finished steel products that are hot-rolled into sheets at the rolling mill.

slim wedges
See tapered blocks Voir blocs coniques

Describes the process of attaching slinging equipment (for example, ropes, chains or webbing slings) to a load in order for it to be lifted/transshipped safely using lifting gear, for example, a crane.

slit strip
Rolled sheets are produced in relatively wide strips (eg > 600 mm), also called wide strip. In order to be able to offer narrower strips, the strips are cut to slit strip in a slitting unit.

slot position
Specifies the position of the container on board the ship, for example using the Bay Row Tier system.

slot rate
Rate used to calculate the cost of renting a slot for transporting a single container on board a ship.

Smart Reefer
A type of refrigerated container (trade name).

sorption behavior
(Latin: adsorbere - take up) Absorption or release of water vapor by a hygroscopic cargo until equilibrium is reached.

sorption isotherms
Graphical representation of the sorption behavior of a substance at a specified temperature.

specially-shaped stanchions
These are collapsible stanchions that can be inserted and locked in place or unlocked and folded down. Stanchions are suitable for providing tight fitting lateral load securing for many types of load.

spontaneous combustion
A rise in temperature of an organic solid without external heat to a point where the solid ignites spontaneously.

Containers were traditionally handled using four wire ropes and cranes. However as the opening angle of the wire ropes placed considerable horizontal pressure on the tops of the containers, steel framed constructions (spreaders) were introduced in order reduce these forces. These spreaders have undergone constant development and are still used on container gantries today.

stacking load
The force acting on lower packing units as as a result of the units stacked on top of them. Standardized DIN and ISO symbols are used to identify the permitted stacking loads.

stalk position
Different positions of tobacco leaves on the stalk which are harvested at different times.

Rods or bars on the sides and corners of an open means of transport or container, used to secure the cargo. Removable stanchions are inserted into the stanchion pockets provided.

stomach poison
Poison which enters the body of the insect on food intake (ingestion). Stomach poisons are usually administered using artificial bait.

storage climate conditions
Refers to the specific external conditions (humidity, temperature, ventilation) in which particular products can be stored without risk of a reduction in value or of damage to the products.

stowage factor
The stowage factor specifies how many cbm or cbf of hold space in a ship will be taken up by a metric tonne, a US ton, or an Imperial ton (1,000 kg/907.18 kg/1016 kg) of a cargo taking into account gaps, shape of the hold, number of 'tween decks, supports and the use of dunnage.

straddle carrier / van carrier
Special self-propelled vehicle for moving containers within the terminal.

stretch wrap
Stretch film used to wrap cargo to form bales or to wrap cargo to pallets.

To unpack/unload a container.

Slinging equipment from various materials. Strops are slung round the load and attached to the hook of the crane.

To pack or load a container.

Transition from the solid to gaseous state without passing through the liquid state.

swap body
Swap bodies are vehicle bodies that are not permanently fixed to the carrying vehicle. They are similar to containers and are locked to the carrying vehicles in the same way using twist locks. At the loading bays, the swap bodies can be stored standing on their own legs. They are suitable for use for multimodal transport by road and rail and have grappler pockets which allow them to be moved using gantry cranes.

sweat class
Classification of sweat water according to intensity. Grades range from 0 (no sweat water) through to 6 (greatest formation of sweat water). The classification is made by observing the volume of water produced per m² surface, thus how many grams of sweat water appear for each square meter for each of the grades.

Increase in volume of solid substances, particularly hygroscopic substances, (paper, natural fibers) as a result of exposure to moisture.

Congregation of molecules, leads to "sweating" in cereals.

syrup formation
Formation of viscous liquids as a result of humidity and warmth, for example, in dried fruits.

T T tank container
A large container essentially comprising an ISO frame in which liquid containers are mounted. They must meet special requirements with respect to pressure-resistance as a result of the pressures they have to withstand. For this reason, the actual containers are generally cylindrical or spherical in form. Several containers can be mounted either horizontally or vertically in a single frame. Only specific containers must be used for foodstuffs and must be marked "Potable liquids only". Tank containers for hazardous goods must meet the requirements of the IMDG code. Half-height tank containers serve to carry high-density liquids which cannot be carried in normal tank containers because they cannot be filled to a high enough level and are therefore subject to surging.

tapered blocks
These are wedges cut at a narrow angle to allow small gaps between items of cargo to be braced. They are also referred to as slim wedges or driving wedges.

T ransformer B ypass U nit: Component of a remote refrigerated container monitoring system with data transfer via the power cable. A TBU allows a transformer to be bridged, that would otherwise not let the data signal pass.

telescope carton
The top of telescope cartons is fabricated as a separate part and overlaps all four sides of the carton (eg banana boxes).

temperature-controlled transport
Transportation during which the optimum temperature for chilled and frozen products is maintained.

temperature/dew point difference
The difference between the temperature of the goods and the dew point temperature of the air surrounding the goods.

temperature gradient
Differences in temperature within a spatial distance.

T wenty-foot E quivalent U nit: Corresponds to a 20 foot container, where the container height (8ft, 8½ft oder 9½ft) is not taken into account; unit for counting containers.

textured coated board
Plywood board with a phenolic laminate backing to enhance durability. The laminate is textured with a screen-printing process.

theoretical density
Pure solid lumber without cavities.

thermophilic microorganisms
(Greek: thermos - heat, philos - love) Microorganisms that thrive on heat.

(Greek: thigma - contact, touch; taxis - arrangement, sequence) Stimulus by touch.

tier (container)
Layer in a container that is numbered from bottom to top.

tight fit
A method of securing the load by direct or indirect physical contact with load-bearing components of the means of transport or the transport container.

T ransport I nformation S ervice ( www.tis-gdv.de )

Threshold Limit Value (referring to harmful substances in the workplace).

tower units
Cooling equipment for supplying of cool air to porthole containers in terminals.

(Greek: toxikon - poison) Poisonous

(Greek: toxikon - poison) The degree to which a substance is poisonous.

trade imbalance
Discrepancy between the amount a country imports and the amount it exports.

transpiration losses
Evaporation losses in vegetable products as a result of respiration (transpiration).

transport-related acceleration forces
Negative and positive accelerations are dynamic, mechanical stresses which occur in two main types during the transportation of goods: N�gatifs et positifs acc�l�rations sont dynamiques, contraintes m�caniques qui se produisent dans deux types principaux pendant le transport des marchandises:

- regular acceleration forces and -- R�gulières et des forces d'acc�l�ration
- irregular acceleration forces. -- Irr�gulière des forces d'acc�l�ration.

Regular acceleration forces primarily occur in maritime transport. R�gulière des forces d'acc�l�ration se produisent principalement dans le transport maritime. Acceleration of up to one g (g = 9.81 [m/s²]) and, in extreme cases, even more, may occur due to rolling and pitching in rough seas. Acc�l�ration maximale d'un g (g = 9,81 [m / s ²]) et, dans des cas extrêmes, même plus, mai se produire en raison de roulis et de tangage dans une mer agit�e. Such regular acceleration forces have an impact on the effort involved in load securing. Cette acc�l�ration des forces r�gulières ont un impact sur l'effort requis en charge le s�curiser.
Irregular acceleration forces occur during cornering or when a train passes over switches, during braking, starting up, hoisting and lowering. Acc�l�ration des forces irr�gulières se produisent pendant les virages ou quand un train passe au-dessus des interrupteurs, au cours du freinage, de d�marrage, de levage et d'abaissement. Such acceleration forces are not generally repeated, but they may occur several times at varying intensities during transport. Ces forces d'acc�l�ration ne sont g�n�ralement pas r�p�t�, mais ils mai se produire plusieurs fois à diff�rentes intensit�s pendant le transport. These are the typical stresses of land transport and transport, handling and storage operations. Ce sont les typique souligne des transports terrestres et des transports, de manutention et de stockage.

transport-related properties of products
Product properties required for transport, handling and storage processes

transport temperatures
Loading, travel and pulp temperatures, eg for sweet oils.

travel or transport temperature
Optimum storage temperature of a product.

Trays are preformed containers made from plastic to take individual fruits that are particularly sensitive to pressure.

Human disease caused by triciniellae (trichinella spiralis). Household pets, for example may be secondary hosts. Meat inspections are statutory preventive measures.

(Latin: turgescere - to swell) Inner pressure, distension of cells.

Tightening elements made up of two threaded rods, a threaded barrel and a lever, usually in the form of a ratchet. Turnbuckles are the preferred tensioning method when securing loads with chains.

Banana that is becoming ripe to eat.

twist lock
A securing mechanism for securing containers in a vertical direction; twist locks are placed between the containers and fastened in the oblong holes on the container corners.

UV unitization
Grouping together of items for transport into transport units (eg in containers or on pallets).

unit loads
Unit loads are parts of a shipment that can be treated as a single unit during cargo handling and transportation. The size or dimensions of the unit load can vary according to requirements and to the means of transport and packaging container available. To optimize the cargo handling, transport and storage processes, standardization of unit loads is desirable. The most common unit loads are pallets and components with bases that resemble pallets, such as pallet boxes, IBCs, etc. The most important properties of a unit load are that it can be loaded to ensure a tight fit, its modularity and its stability, the last of which ensures that it can be stowed safely and will not be damaged by load securing measures.

upper temperature limit
Temperatures above this limit lead to quality degradation.

upright blocking
In the context of load securing, upright blocking is understood to be wooden elements inserted vertically in order to take up and transfer loads.

U nited S tates D epartment of A griculture; US governmental department responsible for the regulations concerning the import of foodstuffs.

VCI (Volatile Corrosion Inhibitor) method
A method used to inhibit corrosion.

(Latin: viscum - tenacity) Degree of resistance to flow in a fluid or semifluid for gas, caused by internal friction.

volume-to-payload ratio
The volume-to-payload ratio of a means of transport specifies the volume available per unit weight payload. In the metric system, it is usual to specify the ration in cubic meters per metric ton (m³/t). In english-speaking countries, it is usual to use cubic feet per ton (cu.ft./t).

WXYZ walking board
Plywood board, generally around 2 cm thick, often used for load securing and for interlayer dunnage or top dunnage.

water content
The percentage of total mass of a substance that is constituted by water.

water content class
Classification of goods in accordance with their water content.

water vapor release

water vapor uptake

Damage as a result of moisture affecting, for instance paper plies, veneered boards.

Frequency band for data transfer via the power cable. The frequencies used for wide band range from 140 kHz to 400 kHz.

Wireless LAN
Wireless Local Area Network; a wireless (radio) network used for transfering data; is also used in offices.

wire rod coil
Steel product made in rod wire rolling mills with varying cross-sections. German standards refer to wire rod as a product that can be wound immediately into coils from the rolling mill whilst still hot.
Coils of wire rod. Depending on the nature of the goods and any intended subsequent processing these coils are corrosion-sensitive and sensitive to mechanical damage, for example, kinks forming in the wire. The length of the winding axis is a critical factor in determining the way they are stowed.

wood treatment certificate
Certificate of treatment against insect infestation.

xerophilous microorganisms
(Greek: xeros - dry, philos - love) Microorganisms that survive at a low relative humidity of (approximately 75%).

Glossaire - Glossary  manuel-de-conteneurisation1 INDEX

www.lomag-man.org is a non-commercial organisation, only for workers information, apprentissage and personnal use of information, betwueen a network job. This is to help community logistics.


Glossaire Source: http://www.containerhandbuch.de/chb_e/glossar_zentral/glossar_gesamt.html

Source: http://www.containerhandbuch.de/chb_e/index.html

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